La Petenera y la máquina del tiempo del flamenco: una lente hacia los inmigrantes invisibles de las plantaciones de azúcar de Hawái
Palabras clave:Flamenco, petenera, imigración
The petenera is part of the most jondo of flamenco and it offers a lens into the ways the history of Al-Andalus’s 800 years of tolerance and the violence of the Inquisition are always swirling around us.
Discovering the recording of a petenera recorded by my great-aunt and uncle has allowed for me a lens into their history, the history of my family, and the invisible immigrants who emigrated not so legally via Hawaii’s sugar plantations.
In 1912, my great-aunt and uncle were among the “human freight” that came from Andalusia to work on the Hawaiian sugar plantations. My Uncle Jose was a migrant worker. He was never a professional flamenco singer. Singing flamenco helped him find peace and cope with what we know now was PTSD but then was called “schizophrenia.”
My aunt and my uncle recorded a petenera shortly after they became American citizens. In 1924 the United States started an immigration quota on Spain, declared it a “shithole country” that was sending over only anarchists and deviants. In 1953 the Rosenburgs were executed and the United States made a deal with Franco to have a naval base at Ronda. I do not know which of these events most influenced the recording of this song, or my Aunt and Uncle finally being able to become citizens.
Looking at this history offers a warning and an encouragement: We need more cultural pluralism instead of cultural puritanism, and we need more empathy- especially when it comes to immigration, and trying to imagine a world sin fronteras.
Derechos de autor 2020 Nicole Henares
Esta obra está bajo una licencia internacional Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0.